In image-guided surgical tasks, the precision and timing of hand movements depend on the effectiveness of visual cues relative to specific target areas in the surgeon’s peri-personal space. Two-dimensional (2D) image views of real-world movements are known to negatively affect both constrained (with tool) and unconstrained (no tool) hand movements compared with direct action viewing. Task conditions where virtual 3D would generate an advantage for surgical eye-hand coordination are unclear. Here, we compared effects of 2D and 3D image views on the precision and timing of surgical hand movement trajectories in a computer controlled simulator environment. Eight novices had to pick and place a small cube on target areas across different trajectory segments in the surgeon’s peri-personal space, with the dominant hand, with and without a tool, under conditions of: 1) direct 2) 2D fisheye camera and 3) virtual 3D viewing (head-mounted). Significant effects of the location of trajectories in the surgeon’s peri-personal space on movement times and precision were found. Subjects were faster and more precise across specific target locations, depending on the viewing modality. Significant interactions between viewing conditions and trajectory locations in peri-personal space explain why 3D viewing is not necessarily an advantage to surgical precision.
This publication was published in Cogent Medicine. You can reach the publication here